 
Below is an explanation of the above listed
1st
Distance To Brake
To Stop Formula
for 5 different Velocities (speeds) between 30km p/h to 80km p/h and from a flat
roadway to a 20% descent gradient which are calculated in 5 separate worksheets
in Bicycle Brake Stop Calculator
Excel spreadsheet
'StoppingDistance.xls'.
Each of those 5 worksheets also calculate the
Distance to Brake to Stop
using the above
2nd
Distance To Brake To Stop Formula
of .
Significantly, as each of the 5 worksheets show the variance
between the calculations of the above described
1st
Distance To Brake
To Stop Formula
and the
2nd
Distance To Brake To Stop Formula
is less than 1%. 
1. Rationale
to calculate the
Distance to Brake to Stop
for a bicycle travelling at 20km/p/h on an
ascent sloping 5%
 see worksheet 'stop_distance_calc 20km
+5%'
in 'StoppingDistance .xls'
which calculates using the
formula on the LHS (of the worksheet) and the formula in the above LHS
Figure 19 to calculate both the
Distance to Brake to Stop
and the
Time
to Brake to Stop.
20 km/p/h is
20,000 metres per 3,600
seconds, or 5.556 metres per second.
Assuming a
Bicycle Brake Reaction Time
of 2.5 seconds, the bicycle will travel 2.5 x 5.556 = 13.89 metres
before the brakes are applied, whereupon following the
Bicycle Brake Response Time,
the bicycle will come to a stop upright.
A
Coefficient Of Friction of 0.25 means that the maximum braking force
is 25% of the force that the weight of the bicycle exerts onto the road.
On a flat road, the force that the weight of the bicycle plus rider
exerts on the road would be the mass of the bike plus rider, times
gravity (9.8 metres per second per second). With a
Coefficient
Of Friction of 25%, the maximum deceleration would be 25% of 9.8 m/s/s.
(Because the maximum braking force depends on the [weight of the bike
plus rider] and acts against the [weight of the bike plus rider],
the two "weights" cancel out.)
On a 5% ascending slope, a bicycle with a
Coefficient
Of Friction of 0.25 can
decelerate at 30% (0.25 + 5% ascending slope) of 9.8 m/s/s. That is, 2.94 m/s/s. To stop from
5.56
m/s it will take 5.556/2.94 m/p/s  that is, 1.89 seconds.
If the bike starts at 5.556 m/s and decelerates at a constant rate to
zero, then its average speed during deceleration is the average of 5.556
and zero. That is, 2.94 m/s.
During 1.89 seconds of deceleration, at an average speed of 2.94 m/s, the
bicycle will travel 5.25 metres.
So with a velocity of 20 km/p/h, on a 5% gradient upwards, with a
Bicycle Brake Reaction Time
of 2.5
seconds, a
Bicycle Brake Response Time
of 2.27 seconds and a 0.25
Coefficient
Of Friction, the shortest possible
Distance to Brake to Stop
(without skidding) is 13.89 + 5.25 = 19.14 metres during a
Time
to Brake to Stop of 4.39 seconds. This
agrees with Figure 19 above. It also agrees to 2.08% with the above
formula in Figure 19 for km/p/h which calcs 19.54 metres to halt. 
2. Rationale
to calculate the
Distance to Brake to Stop
for a bicycle travelling at 20km/p/h on a level road
 see worksheet 'stop_distance_calc 20km 0%'
in 'StoppingDistance .xls'
which calculates using the
formula on the LHS (of the worksheet) and the formula in the above LHS
Figure 19 to calculate both the
Distance to Brake to Stop
and the
Time
to Brake to Stop.
20 km/p/h is
20,000 metres per 3,600
seconds, or 5.556 metres per second.
Assuming a
Bicycle Brake Reaction Time
of 2.5 seconds, the bicycle will travel 2.5 x 5.556 = 13.89 metres
before the brakes are applied, whereupon following the
Bicycle Brake Response Time,
the bicycle will come to a stop upright.
A
Coefficient Of Friction of 0.25 means that the maximum braking force
is 25% of the force that the weight of the bicycle exerts onto the road.
On a flat road, the force that the weight of the bicycle plus rider
exerts on the road would be the mass of the bike plus rider, times
gravity (9.8 metres per second per second). With a
Coefficient
Of Friction of 25%, the maximum deceleration would be 25% of 9.8 m/s/s.
(Because the maximum braking force depends on the [weight of the bike
plus rider] and acts against the [weight of the bike plus rider],
the two "weights" cancel out.)
On a flat road, a bicycle with a
Coefficient
Of Friction of 0.25 can
decelerate at 25% of 9.8 m/s/s. That is, 2.45 m/s/s. To stop from 5.56
m/s it will take 5.556/2.45 m/p/s  that is, 2.27 seconds.
If the bike starts at 5.556 m/s and decelerates at a constant rate to
zero, then its average speed during deceleration is the average of 5.556
and zero. That is, 2.45 m/s.
During 2.27 seconds of deceleration, at an average speed of 5.56 m/s, the
bicycle will travel 6.3 metres.
So on a flat road, with a
Bicycle Brake Reaction Time
of 2.5
seconds, a
Bicycle Brake Respo3e Time
of 2.27 seconds and a 0.25
Coefficient
Of Friction, the shortest possible
Distance to Brake to Stop
(without skidding) is 13.89 + 6.30 = 20.19 metres during a
Time
to Brake to Stop of 4.77 seconds. This
agrees with Figure 19 above. It also agrees to 1.97% with the above
formula in Figure 19 for km/p/h which calcs 20.58 metres to halt. 
3. Rationale
to calculate the
Distance to Brake to Stop
for a bicycle travelling at 40km/p/h on a level road
 see worksheet 'stop_distance_calc 40km 0%'
in ''StoppingDistance .xls'
which calculates using the
formula on the LHS (of the worksheet) and the formula in the above LHS
Figure 19 to calculate both the
Distance to Brake to Stop
and the
Time
to Brake to Stop.
40 km/p/h is 40,000 metres per 3,600
seconds, or 11.11 metres per second.
Assuming a
Bicycle Brake Reaction Time
of 2.5 seconds, the bicycle will travel 2.5 x 11.11 = 27.78 metres
before the brakes are applied, whereupon following the
Bicycle Brake Response Time,
the bicycle will come to a stop upright.
A
Coefficient Of Friction of 0.25 means that the maximum braking force
is 25% of the force that the weight of the bicycle exerts onto the road.
On a flat road, the force that the weight of the bicycle plus rider
exerts on the road would be the mass of the bike plus rider, times
gravity (9.8 metres per second per second). With a
Coefficient
Of Friction of 25%, the maximum deceleration would be 25% of 9.8 m/s/s.
(Because the maximum braking force depends on the [weight of the bike
plus rider] and acts against the [weight of the bike plus rider],
the two "weights" cancel out.)
On a flat road, a bicycle with a
Coefficient
Of Friction of 0.25 can
decelerate at 25% of 9.8 m/s/s. That is, 2.45 m/s/s. To stop from 11.11
m/s it will take 11.11/2.45 m/p/s  that is, 4.54 seconds.
If the bike starts at 11.111 m/s and decelerates at a constant rate to
zero, then its average speed during deceleration is the average of
11.111
and zero. That is, 5.56 m/s.
During 4.54 seconds of deceleration, at an average speed of 2.45 m/s, the
bicycle will travel 25.195 metres.
So on a flat road, with a
Bicycle Brake Reaction Time
of 5.56
seconds, a
Bicycle Brake Response Time
of 4.54 seconds and a 0.25
Coefficient
Of Friction, the shortest possible
Distance to Brake to Stop
(without skidding) is 27.78 + 25.19 = 52.97 metres during a
Time
to Brake to Stop of 7.04 seconds. This
agrees with Figure 19 above. It also agrees to 1.5% with the above
formula in Figure 19 for km/p/h which calcs 53.77 metres to halt. 
4. Rationale
to calculate the
Distance to Brake to Stop
for a bicycle travelling at 30km/p/h on a descent sloping 10%
 see worksheet 'stop_distance_calc 30km
10%' in ''StoppingDistance .xls' which calculates using
the formula on the LHS (of the worksheet) and the formula in the above Figure 19 to calculate both the
Distance to Brake to Stop
and the
Time
to Brake to Stop.
30 km/p/h is 30,000 metres per 3,600
seconds, or 8.33 metres per second.
Assuming a
Bicycle Brake Reaction Time
of 2.5 seconds, the bicycle will travel 2.5 x 8.33 = 20.83 metres
before the brakes are applied, whereupon following the
Bicycle Brake Response Time,
the bicycle will come to a stop upright.
A
Coefficient Of Friction of 0.25 means that the maximum braking force
is 25% of the force that the weight of the bicycle exerts onto the road.
On a 10% descent slope flat road, the force that the weight of the
bicycle plus rider exerts on the road would be the mass of the bike plus
rider, times gravity (9.8 metres per second per second). With a
Coefficient
Of Friction of 25%, the maximum deceleration would be 25% of
9.8 m/s/s. (Because the maximum braking force depends on the [weight of
the bike plus rider] and acts against the [weight of the bike plus
rider],
the two "weights" cancel out.)
On a 10% descending slope, a bicycle with a
Coefficient
Of Friction of
0.25 can decelerate at 15% (25% less10% slope) of 9.8 m/s/s. That
is, 1.47 m/s/s. To stop from 8.33 m/s it will take 8.33/1.47 m/p/s 
that is, 5.67 seconds.
If the bike starts at 8.33 m/s and decelerates at a constant rate to
zero, then its average speed during deceleration is the average of 8.33
and zero. That is, 4.167 m/s.
During 5.67 seconds of deceleration, at an average speed of 4.167 m/s, the
bicycle will travel 23.62 metres.
So with a velocity of 30 km/p/h, on a 10% gradient downwards, with a
Bicycle Brake Reaction Time
of 2.5
seconds, a
Bicycle Brake Response Time
of 5.67 seconds and a 0.25
Coefficient
Of Friction, the shortest possible
Distance to Brake to Stop
(without skidding) is 20.83 + 23.62 = 44.45 metres during a
Time
to Brake to Stop of 8.17 seconds. This
agrees with Figure 19 above. It also agrees to 1.34% with
the above formula in Figure 19 for km/p/h which calcs 45.05 metres to
halt. 
5. Rationale
to calculate the
Distance to Brake to Stop
for a bicycle travelling at 50km/p/h on a descent sloping
20%  see worksheet 'stop_distance_calc
50km 20%' in
''StoppingDistance .xls' which calculates
using the formula on the LHS (of the worksheet) and the formula in the
above LHS Figure 19 to
calculate both the
Distance to Brake to Stop
and the
Time
to Brake to Stop.
50 km/p/h is
50,000 metres per 3,600
seconds, or 13.89 metres per second.
Assuming a
Bicycle Brake Reaction Time
of 2.5 seconds, the bicycle will travel 2.5 x 13.89 = 34.72 metres
before the brakes are applied, whereupon following the
Bicycle Brake Response Time,
the bicycle will come to a stop upright.
A
Coefficient Of Friction of 0.25 means that the maximum braking force
is 25% of the force that the weight of the bicycle exerts onto the road.
On a 20% descent slope flat road, the force that the weight of the
bicycle plus rider exerts on the road would be the mass of the bike plus
rider, times gravity (9.8 metres per second per second). With a
Coefficient
Of Friction of 25%, the maximum deceleration would be 25% of
9.8 m/s/s. (Because the maximum braking force depends on the [weight of
the bike plus rider] and acts against the [weight of the bike plus
rider],
the two "weights" cancel out.)
On a 20% descending slope, a bicycle with a
Coefficient
Of Friction of
0.25 can decelerate at 5% (25% less 20% slope) of 9.8 m/s/s. That
is, 0.49 m/s/s. To stop from 13.89 m/s it will take 13.89/0.49 m/p/s 
that is, 28.34 seconds.
If the bike starts at 13.89 m/s and decelerates at a constant rate to
zero, then its average speed during deceleration is the average of 13.89
and zero. That is, 6.944 m/s.
During 28.34 seconds of deceleration, at an average speed of 6.944 m/s, the
bicycle will travel 196.84 metres.
So with a velocity of 50 km/p/h, on a 20% gradient downwards, with a
Bicycle Brake Reaction Time
of 2.5
seconds, a
Bicycle Brake Response Time
of 28.34 seconds and a 0.25
Coefficient
Of Friction, the shortest possible
Distance to Brake to Stop
(without skidding) is 34.72 + 196.84 = 231.56 metres during a
Time
to Brake to Stop of 30.84 seconds. This
agrees with Figure 19 above. It also agrees to less than 1% with
the above formula in Figure 19 for km/p/h which calcs 232.56 metres to
halt. 
6. Rationale
to calculate the
Distance to Brake to Stop
for a bicycle travelling at 70km/p/h on a descent sloping 12%
 see worksheet 'stop_distance_calc 70km 12%'
in ''StoppingDistance .xls'
which calculates using the
formula on the LHS (of the worksheet) and the formula in the above LHS
Figure 19 both the
Distance to Brake to Stop
and the
Time
to Brake to Stop.
70 km/h is
70,000 metres per 3,600
seconds, or 19.44 metres per second.
Assuming a
Bicycle Brake Reaction Time
of 2.5 seconds, the bicycle will travel 2.5 x 19.44 = 48.61 metres
before the brakes are applied, whereupon following the
Bicycle Brake Response Time,
the bicycle will come to a stop upright.
A
Coefficient Of Friction of 0.25 means that the maximum braking force
is 25% of the force that the weight of the bicycle exerts onto the road.
On a 12% descent slope flat road, the force that the weight of the
bicycle plus rider exerts on the road would be the mass of the bike plus
rider, times gravity (9.8 metres per second per second). With a
Coefficient
Of Friction of 25%, the maximum deceleration would be 25% of
9.8 m/s/s. (Because the maximum braking force depends on the [weight of
the bike plus rider] and acts against the [weight of the bike plus
rider],
the two "weights" cancel out.)
On a 12% descending slope, a bicycle with a
Coefficient
Of Friction of
0.25 can decelerate at 13% (25% less12% slope) of 9.8 m/s/s. That
is, 0.98 m/s/s. To stop from 19.44 m/s it will take 19.44/1.24 seconds 
that is, 15.26 seconds.
If the bike starts at 19.44 m/s and decelerates at a constant rate to
zero, then its average speed during deceleration is the average of 19.44
and zero. That is, 9.722 m/s.
During 22.68 seconds of deceleration, at an average speed of 11.11 m/s, the
bicycle will travel 251.95 metres.
So with a velocity of 70 km/p/h, on a 12% gradient downwards, with a
Bicycle Brake Reaction Time
of 2.5
seconds, a
Bicycle Brake Response Time
of 15.26 seconds and a 0.25
Coefficient
Of Friction, the shortest possible
Distance to Brake to Stop
(without skidding) is 48.61 + 148.39 = 197.51 metres during a
Time
to Brake to Stop of 17.76 seconds. This
is not able to be corroborated with Figure 19 above because that Figure 19 does not calc
beyond 50 km/p/h. However, it agrees to less than 1% with the
above formula in Figure 19 for km/p/h which shows calcs 198.39 metres to
halt. 
7. Rationale
to calculate the
Distance to Brake to Stop
for a bicycle travelling at 80km/p/h on a descent sloping 15%
 see worksheet 'stop_distance_calc 80km 15%'
in ''StoppingDistance .xls'
which calculates using the
formula on the LHS (of the worksheet) and the formula in the above LHS
Figure 19 to calculate both the
Distance to Brake to Stop
and the
Time
to Brake to Stop.
80 km/h is 80,000 metres per 3,600
seconds, or 22.22 metres per second.
Assuming a
Bicycle Brake Reaction Time
of 2.5 seconds, the bicycle will travel 2.5 x 22.22 = 55.56 metres
before the brakes are applied, whereupon following the
Bicycle Brake Response Time,
the bicycle will come to a stop upright.
A
Coefficient Of Friction of 0.25 means that the maximum braking force
is 25% of the force that the weight of the bicycle exerts onto the road.
On a 15% descent slope flat road, the force that the weight of the
bicycle plus rider exerts on the road would be the mass of the bike plus
rider, times gravity (9.8 metres per second per second). With a
Coefficient
Of Friction of 25%, the maximum deceleration would be 25% of
9.8 m/s/s. (Because the maximum braking force depends on the [weight of
the bike plus rider] and acts against the [weight of the bike plus
rider],
the two "weights" cancel out.)
On a 15% descending slope, a bicycle with a
Coefficient
Of Friction of
0.25 can decelerate at 10% (25% less15% slope) of 9.8 m/s/s. That
is, 0.98 m/s/s. To stop from 22.22 m/s it will take 22.22/0.98 seconds 
that is, 22.68 seconds.
If the bike starts at 22.22 m/s and decelerates at a constant rate to
zero, then its average speed during deceleration is the average of 22.22
and zero. That is, 11.11 m/s.
During 22.68 seconds of deceleration, at an average speed of 11.11 m/s, the
bicycle will travel 251.95 metres.
So with a velocity of 80 km/p/h, on a 15% gradient downwards, with a
Bicycle Brake Reaction Time
of 2.5
seconds, a
Bicycle Brake Response Time
of 22.68 seconds and a 0.25
Coefficient
Of Friction, the shortest possible
Distance to Brake to Stop
(without skidding) is 55.56 + 251.95 = 307.51 metres during a
Time
to Brake to Stop of 25.18 seconds. This is
not able to be corroborated with Figure 19 above because that Figure 19 does not calc
beyond 50 km/p/h. However, it agrees to less than 1% with the
above formula in Figure 19 for km/p/h which calcs 309.11 metres to halt. 
On a road sloping
downhill at 
* 20%, with a 0.25
Coefficient
Of Friction, most of the braking force will be absorbed by
counteracting gravity, thereby leaving relatively little of the braking force
available to slow the bike, so it will take a very long time to stop.
* 25%, with a 0.25
Coefficient
Of Friction, the entire braking force will be needed to counteract the gravitational
acceleration, the bike will continue at a constant speed and the braking
distance will be infinite.
However, the above calcs make no allowance that a heavier
cyclist will take longer to brake to a halt than a lighter cyclist.
In dry
conditions a heavier cyclist will take longer to stop than a lighter cyclist.
This is because the
Coefficient
Of Friction will be higher, and thus allow
higher braking forces. These higher braking forces will cause the brakes to heat
up and fade, or cause the brake pads or the rubber on the tyre to start to
shred. In wet conditions the braking forces will be lower and the brakes will be
less likely to overheat.
Sight Distance
 pg 40
of 'Guide for development of bicycle facilities"
notes:
The
distance required to bring a bicycle to a full controlled stop
is a function of
the 
i)
bicyclist’s perception time;
ii)
bicyclist's brake reaction time,
iii)
initial speed of the bicycle, known as V
iv)
coefficient of friction
between the tires and the
pavement  known as f, and
v)
braking ability of the bicycle and rider, known
as Ab.
Four other variables
which affect the
Distance to Brake to Stop
and the
Time
to Brake to Stop are the 
vi)
gradient of road ahead during
Distance to Brake to Stop
known as G
vii)
weight of the bicycle and rider, known as M; and
viii)
direction of road ahead during
Distance to Brake to Stop
known as Dir;
viii)
wind direction and strength, known as W.
The above are known as
the
Eight Bicycle Variables To Stop.
The two below Figure
19 indicates the minimum stopping sight distance
(separately in
km and then miles),
referred to in this analysis as the
Distance to Brake to Stop,
for various design speeds and grades based on a
bicyclist's brake reaction time
of 2.5 seconds
and a
Coefficient Of Friction
of 0.25
to
account for the poor braking equipment of many bicycles and limited skills of.
As noted in
Bicycle Brake Stop Calculator

(A) presently the Bicycle Brake Stop Calculator

(a)
assumes a constant Mass of the cyclist is 150lbs (68.1kgs) and assumes a
Coefficient Of Friction
f of 35%;
(b)
factors in only the variables of speed V and gradient
G.
(c) does not factor
in the variables 4, 5, 6 and 7 of the
Eight Bicycle Variables To Stop.
These are:

direction of road ahead
(between 0 degrees and 90 degrees) is Dir

bicycle/cyclist weight
= Mass is M

wind speed
impact is W

braking ability
of the bicycle and rider is Ab
(B) It should be possible to incorporate the above
'missing' variables to test the Two Distance To Brake To Stop Formulae. High Speed Bicycling
by Wayne Pein
wpein@nc.rr.com (Revised July 2007)
notes that according to
AASHTO’s “Green Book,”A
Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, in roadway design,
braking and sight distance calculations for all vehicles, including bicycles, are figured using a deceleration rate of 3.4 m/s2
(11.2 ft/s2),
which is 0.35 g.
Fourwheeled motor vehicles have much better emergency braking
capabilities than bicycles, approximately 0.6  0.7 g (some cars can achieve more than 0.9
g), affording motorists a great margin for error beyond AASHTO’s roadway design specification.
In contrast, a typical bicyclist can be expected to decelerate at 0.35 g on clean, dry, level
pavement which, coincidentally, is AASHTO’s figure for roadway design purposes as previously noted.
A conventional bicycle's theoretical maximum deceleration is limited to about 0.6 g on
level pavement by weight transfer, which can cause pitchover. However, only a highly skilled
bicyclist using optimal technique may be able to achieve this 0.6 g; most will be far lower at
about 0.35 g.
For nonlevel roads the grade is added (+ or ) to this
deceleration rate in gees. This means that on a 5% descent, for example, braking effort equivalent to 0.05
g is used to counteract the effect of gravity, leaving typical bicyclists only 0.35  0.05 = 0.30 g
for deceleration.
Further, unlike motor vehicle braking which is not markedly
affected in wet conditions, the braking capability of some bicycles is greatly reduced due to
the diminished friction between the brake shoes and a wet rim. According to John Forester [personal
communication, 12/22/04] “Bicycle braking under wet conditions needs to be considered in
two phases. The first phase is wiping the rims clean, the second phase is actual
braking. For aluminium rims, one can consider three rotations of the wheel to
wipe the rim reasonably dry. That is about 21 feet for typical wheel sizes.
Subsequent braking, given good brakes to start with, is then typical of dry, unless
the road surface is so slippery that it will not produce a 0.67
Coefficient
Of Friction. The situation with chromeplated steel rims is worse; they don't wipe dry.”
At 20 mph (29 ft/s), 21 feet of nearly nonexistent braking adds about 0.7 seconds to braking time. Thus, instead of taking 2.6 seconds to come to a complete stop, it would take 3.3 seconds on level ground when wet, amounting to an average deceleration of 0.28 g. Heavy rain or road splash at high speed could result in continuously wet rims, further drastically reducing braking capacity.
For sighttriangle and other operational calculations, bicycle deceleration rate in wet conditions should be considered to be slightly more than half that under dry conditions; 0.20 g.
Moreover, BL stripes are very slippery when wet, adding an unnecessary longitudinal hazard.
These concerns amplify the argument that BLs are counterindicated, especially on high speed descents.
NOTES ON RESISTANCE AND POWER IN CYCLING
The standard model for calculating the resistance to motion of
bicycles, using pounds, feet, and seconds, is:
Resistance (lbs) = Slope Resistance + Rolling Resistance + Air
Resistance
Slope Resistance =Mass * Slope
Rolling Resistance =Bearing Friction + Tire Losses (both
empirically determined)
Air Resistance =Density of air/2 * Cross Sectional Area * Drag
Factor * Speed * Speed
The accepted standard density of air at sea level is 0.002378
slugs/cu.ft. (Which equals 0.07657 lbs/cu.ft)
The FHWA research done in Davis (FHWARD75112) gives the
following resistances when using a system that uses pounds and hours and mixes feet with miles:
Resistance, lbs (FHWA) =Weight*Slope + Weight*(0.005 + 0.15/TirePressure)
+
0.00256*(AirSpeed*AirSpeed*DragArea* DragFactor)
The 0.00256 factor converts the 0.002378 by combining the
division by 2 and the conversion from feet per second to miles
per hour. Also, their values for bearing and tire friction are
high relative to what is available today. Good wiredon tires
have improved greatly since then. The CycSpeed program reflects
this change by using bearing friction of 0.002 and tire
losses as 0.10/TirePressure.
Whitt and Wilson give the following for typical drag areas and
factors:
Cyclist on roadster bicycle: 5.3 Square Feet and 1.2 Drag Factor
Cyclist on sporting bicycle: 4.3 Square Feet and 1.0 Drag Factor
Cyclist on racing bicycle: 3.55 Square Feet and 0.9 Drag Factor
The resistance to acceleration (inertia) is greater than the
mass by an amount very nearly equal to the mass of the tires
and rims. CycSpeed adds in the masses of the tires and rims.
Whitt & Wilson call this the WheelResistanceFactor and
typically give it a value of 0.01 for all bicycles.
Whitt & Wilson give the following for resistance using metric (MKS)
system:
Res (newtons) = Mg(Rolling Resistance + Slope Resistance + Wheel
Resistance Factor) +
0.5*(Drag Factor*Drag Area*Air Density*Airspeed*Airspeed)
=Mg*(Cr + slope + a/g*1.01) + 0.5*Cd*A*R*(Vc + Vw)*(Vc + Vw)
=Mg*(Cr + slope + a/g*1.01) + 0.5*1.0*0.4*1.226*V*V
=K1 + K2V*V +10.32M(slope +a/g*1.01)
Where K1 and K2 are per the following:
K1 K2
Roadster bicycle 7.845 0.3872
Sports bicycle 3.509 0.2581
Racing bicycle 2.508 0.1916
 
